Causes of Cancer

What You Need to Know About Brain Cancer

What You Need to Know About Brain Cancer

Though the chance of developing brain cancer is quite rare, it is ranked as the tenth leading cause of death for both men and women.

Despite being one of the most common cancers amongst children, brain cancer is relatively rare amongst the general population. In fact, the chance that a person will develop a cancerous tumor in their brain or spinal cord is less than 1%. Though the chance of developing brain cancer is quite rare, it is ranked as the tenth leading cause of death for both men and women.

Risk Factors, Signs, and Symptoms

In most cases, the cause of a brain tumor is unknown. Unlike lung cancer, there are few interventions or lifestyle modifications that can aid in preventing brain cancer. However, researchers have identified factors that may raise a person’s risk of developing brain cancer. Like many cancers, older adults are at a higher risk of developing this cancer than young adults. Surprisingly, this cancer is also more common in children. Approximately 5% of brain tumors may be linked to hereditary genetic factors or conditions such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome, neurofibromatosis, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Turcot syndrome, and von Hippel-Lindau disease.

Identifying signs and symptoms related to brain cancer poses a challenge. In some cases, individuals with brain tumors may experience no symptoms at all. Other times, they experience symptoms that are also commonly caused by other conditions. Symptoms of brain tumors have been split into two distinctive categories: general and specific. General symptoms are caused by the pressure of the tumor on the brain or spinal cord. Specific symptoms are caused when a specific part of the brain is not working well because of the tumor.

General symptoms may include:

  • Headaches
  • Seizures
  • Personality or memory changes
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Drowsiness
  • Sleep problems
  • Memory problems
  • Changes in ability to walk or perform daily activities

Specific symptoms may include:

  • Pressure or headache near tumor
  • Loss of balance or difficulty with fine motor skills
  • Changes in judgment, including loss of initiative, sluggishness, or muscle weakness
  • Partial or complete loss of vision
  • Changes in speech, hearing, memory, or emotional state
  • Altered perception of touch or pressure
  • Inability to look upwards
  • Lactation
  • Difficulty swallowing, facial weakness, numbness, or double vision
  • Vision changes

Treatment Options
Once a medical team believes there is a cancerous tumor, they will likely order a series of tests to confirm their suspicions. In general, doctors will typically begin with an MRI before moving to a biopsy. Patients may also undergo additional scans or X-Rays, lumbar punctures or spinal taps, or additional tests to learn more about the tumor before beginning treatment. Most patients will undergo surgery to remove the tumor, followed by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other targeted therapies.

Patients that are newly diagnosed with glioblastoma, which is the most common type of brain cancer, may be recommended to use alternating electric field therapy. This type of treatment uses a non-invasive portable device that interferes with the parts of a cell that are needed for tumor cells to grow and spread. While this treatment yields a similar life expectancy as chemotherapy, it causes far fewer side effects.

Current Research
The Asian Fund for Cancer Research is currently working with world-renowned researchers to change the way in which brain cancer is treated. One of the exciting initiatives is GBM AGILE, the world’s first global adaptive clinical trial platform for glioblastoma. This game-changing international effort changes the current clinical trial model by evaluating multiple therapies simultaneously. This allows researchers to move forward with effective treatments more quickly than the current model of clinical trials allows.